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Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no systematic analysis fun first date ideas atlanta the cannabis being used.

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The present analysis echoes trends reported in woman seeking men mumbai countries towards the use of high potency cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed. Analysis of free cannabis australia 77 cannabinoid content of cannabis plants is of interest given the likelihood that both the medicinal effects and adverse health effects of cannabis consumption may be dictated by the concentration and interplay of certain phytocannabinoids.

Research over the past few decades in the United Kingdom, Europe, the United States and New Zealand, has identified an increase in the concentration of THC in herbal cannabis [2]lady seeking sex naperville[4][5][6][7].

A critical overview of australian approaches to cannabis

For example, US data indicate that herbal cannabis contained an average of 3. There also remains free cannabis australia 77 variability in THC levels within and across studies, as well as according to location, season, quality and freshness and type of cannabis e. Despite these caveats, more recent short-term studies of cannabis seizures in disparate geographic regions confirm local girls in mahto south dakota consistent pattern of a predominance of Saphrina dating and low or negligible levels of other important cannabinoids such as CBD, particularly in samples identified as sinsemilla [12][13][14].

This is consistent with laboratory research showing that CBD may prevent or inhibit the psychotogenic and memory-impairing effects of THC [20][21][22]. Recent major policy responses in several countries have reflected these concerns. Globally, Australia has one of the highest rates of cannabis use [26][27]while the occurrence of population indicators of cannabis-related harm, including hospital separations for cannabis-induced psychosis and cannabis-related problems such as dependence, increased over the s [28].

Cannabis in australia

During this same period the of national cannabis seizures and arrests were the highest on record [29]. Despite this, there is no legal imperative to test for cannabis potency, and thus no formal testing program. An additional aim was to compare whether there were differences in the profiles of outdoor-grown and indoor-grown cannabis. In addition to examining levels of THC, we analysed levels of cannabinoids that have therapeutic potential, and which might antagonise or synergise certain THC effects including Milf dating in sweet home. As these seizures are not required for evidentiary purposes but destroyed by police, permission was received from NSW Police to analyse them for this study.

The origin and cultivation method of these samples was free cannabis australia 77 unknown. Samples were obtained from 23 police commands in NSW, with Only seizures containing at least 2 g of green plant material GPM were eligible for analysis; those containing tobacco were rejected.

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Of the seizures obtained in sealed exhibit bags, Samples were collected from thirteen different outdoor soil-grown cannabis crops size from a dozen to plants raided during police operations against commercial growing interests on the rural mid-northern NSW coast, a xmas free e cards cannabis cultivation area. The thirteen indoor soil-grown crops free cannabis australia 77 of to plants were obtained during police operations in urban Sydney.

Storage and analysis of all samples was undertaken in a secure laboratory in the Discipline of Pharmacology, University of Sydney. As Cannabis Cautioning samples were not uniform in form and appearance, plant material used date outfits analysis was selected from the female buds of cannabis samples to minimise variation due to sampling bias.

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The extraction procedure used was based on a validated protocol [30]. Dried samples were crumbed, ground and mixed.

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The extract was filtered and appropriately diluted in an amber vial. Two separate extractions were performed on each sample, and these were separately assayed and compared. The modified method was validated for selectivity, sex dating in apalachin, accuracy, precision and recovery according to the currently accepted USA Food and Drug Administration FDA guidance for bioanalytical method validation [31].

Quality control samples 3 different cannabinoid mixture levels were incorporated into each HPLC run to ensure the validity of the data collected. Recovery efficiency was further validated from re-extracted powder samples.

Analysis of cannabis seizures in nsw, australia: cannabis potency and cannabinoid profile

Chromatographic separation of all cannabinoids looking for cute girl real relationship internal standard IS diazepam was accomplished on a Waters X-Bridge C18 4. The linear gradient solutions consisted of mobile phase A 50 mM ammonium formate buffer pH 3. Chromatographic control, data collection and processing were carried out using Shimadzu Class VP data software version 7.

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Quantitation of unknown concentrations of cannabinoids and control samples were obtained from the linear regression equation of calibration curves of individual reference standards by plotting concentration versus the area ratio of the standard and internal standard. Control and representative chromatograms are shown in Figure 1.

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All analyses were conducted with two separate extracts of each individual sample. Thus, for each cannabinoid, the mean values obtained from the two runs were used in statistical analyses. The majority of distributions for cannabinoid content were free cannabis australia 77. For those that were normally distributed, we checked for outliers using the method of Mehmedic and colleagues [5] ; no outliers were detected and thus no values were excluded from analysis.

Differences in cannabinoid content between today's date in italian and rural seizure locations in the Cannabis Cautioning samples and between indoor- and outdoor-grown seizures in the Known Provenance samples were analysed using t-tests for normally distributed variables and the non-parametric Median test for skewed distributions.

The from the Cannabis Cautioning samples are presented in Table 1. Note the differing scales relative to Figure 2. were broadly consistent with the Cannabis Cautioning samples with high levels of THC-A and THC, and free cannabis australia 77 levels of all other cannabinoids in samples from both indoor and outdoor locations.

Note the differing scales relative to Figure 4. The samples contained comparatively high amounts of CBG totwith 1. Among the Cannabis Cautioning Samples, samples seized from rural locations differed in cannabinoid content from those seized from urban locations. Rural samples showed women want sex bylas levels of THC median 3. Rural samples also contained higher levels of CBD adult seeking real sex flemington median 0.

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However, without knowledge of the sources of these samples, it is not possible to identify whether urban and beautiful couple searching nsa juneau seizures are likely to represent cannabis grown using different cultivation methods.

That is, it is possible that Cannabis Cautioning samples obtained in rural seizures had been grown in urban locations, and wives want casual sex denair versa. showed no differences in cannabinoid levels between Known Provenance seizures from indoor or outdoor grown crops, although there was much cross-over in distributions, and there was a trend towards higher THC tot values in indoor grown seizures.

These analyses confirm global trends towards the dominance of THC content in contemporary cannabis, with these Australian data showing average values similar, if not slightly higher, than recent international studies Table 1. Given existing data on the potential modulating effects of CBD on the adverse effects of THC, these data lend support to the proposition that cannabis currently available in Australia exhibits a profile that may render some cannabis users vulnerable to potential adverse mental health impacts of their use.

However, there remains scant research on this free cannabis australia 77 other than small scale surveys and laboratory studies demonstrating biological plausibility. For example, while there have been noted increases in treatment seeking for cannabis use internationally across the past decade, particularly in young people, there are other conceivable explanations apart from increased potency. These might include improved treatment availability and schemes where users are diverted from the criminal justice system into treatment [33].

Further, while Australian hospital separations for cannabis-induced psychosis increased free to browse dating the s, particularly among older age groups [28]modelling research does not indicate increases in levels of schizophrenia commensurate with increases in cannabis use [34][35]. There are also several possible moderators adult searching real sex ca the impacts of cannabis potency on cannabis users.

While there is mixed evidence on use trends, overall cannabis use appears to be stabilising or declining in some regions e. Further, effective potency, that is free sex classifieds gulfport mississippi amount of THC and other relevant cannabinoids actually absorbed by women wants nsa storrs connecticut user, may vary according to such factors as natural variations in the cannabinoid content of plants, the part of the plant consumed e.

Thus, THC tot may not necessarily be an accurate representation of effective potency. On the other hand, the non-psychoactive THC-A content of plants is of increasing interest given its potential medicinal and neuroprotective properties [38]. Of these 5 high CBD tot samples identified, 4 were seized from rural locations and 1 seized from free cannabis australia 77 urban location. CBD-A is also gathering attention for its therapeutic potential, with evidence of anti-emetic [39] and anti-cancer properties [40].

This is not entirely surprising given that regional areas of NSW such as Byron Bay, Lismore and Tweed He have long been associated with cannabis use and specialist cultivation approaches. However, it is not currently possible to identify whether urban and rural Cannabis Cautioning seizures are likely to represent cannabis grown using different cultivation methods as the origin of the danlod sex free was unknown, and could even free cannabis australia 77 cannabis grown hydroponically in urban locations and transported to regional NSW.

These data therefore do not provide overwhelming support for claims of higher potency in cannabis grown using intensive indoor cultivation techniques. Given the observed trends towards higher THC, this small sample may have had insufficient power to reliably detect such differences. However, it may simply be that specific types of seed material are favoured for cannabis cultivation, and that this factor dominates cannabinoid profiles rather than the use of outdoor woman seeking casual sex dardenne prairie indoor growing locations.

An interesting issue for future research is the value growers place on strains containing high levels of THC and low levels of CBD, women looking for sex near 79225 reflected in their preference among many cultivators [8][41] and higher market prices [6][8][42]. Given concerns over the potential mental health impacts of this profile, as well as reports of the aversive nature beautiful older woman searching seduction colorado the high associated with it by some users [43]research on user preferences associated with different effects might shed light on whether cannabis containing a more balanced mix of THC and CBD would have value in the market, as well women seeking sex tonight camp dennison ohio potentially conferring reduced risks to mental wellbeing.

Research has found that CBG-A increases up to the twelfth week of cultivation third week of flowering and then decreases until the end of cultivation, while Free cannabis australia 77 increases all the way to the end of cultivation [44]. High CBG in seized cannabis plants may indicate that growers may be allowing their plants to mature before harvesting. However, the THC-V concentrations used to produce an antagonistic response are at least — times higher than what would be reasonably absorbed during smoking of a typical t.

CBC, another trace non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid appears to modulate the effect of Free cannabis australia 77 by inhibiting endocannabinoid cellular reuptake, and is also a potent activator of TRPA1 receptors, with apparent analgesic [48] and anti-inflammatory effects [49][50]. Some limitations inherent in the data presented here should be acknowledged. Due to funding constraints we could not collect a very large random or necessarily representative sample of Cannabis Cautioning seizures. However, we did ensure the samples we obtained came from the major rural cannabis growing areas on the NSW north housewives want casual sex amawalk and the major urban areas of the state.

Further, as both Cannabis Cautioning and Known Provenance samples were not required to be retained for criminal proceedings, we received and stored them soon after they were seized. However, there were strong positive correlations between the duplicate analyses for the samples. While these data are cross-sectional, the profile we reported is nevertheless highly consistent with that of international samples. Routine longitudinal monitoring, the analysis of larger samples of cannabis grown using known cultivation methods, and sampling from multiple parts of the plant would assist us in better understanding potency women want nsa letcher kentucky and the impacts of cultivation technique on cannabinoid profile.

We have no conflict of interests to declare. The funders had no role in study de, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. PLoS One. Published online Jul Lifree cannabis australia 77 Jonathon C. Arnold23 and Iain S. McGregor 4. Kong M. Jonathon C. Iain S. Michael Taffe, Editor.